ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF CONFORMITY OF THE RUSSIAN TRANSPORT COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT WITH MODERN REQUIREMENTS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Rubrics: TOURISM
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The article is devoted to problems of interaction and interdependence of the transport complex of Russia and the tourism industry. The article transport system of Russia is considered as one of the key factors in the de- velopment of the tourism industry of the country. In this context, formulated the hypothesis that the control of the formation of the transport complex with the needs of the tourism industry could have a beneficial impact on tourism in general, to ensure the accessibility of new tourist destinations, to promote new forms of tourism and contribute to the development of social and economic spheres of the country. The main problem formu- lated in the article, is the disparity between the development and functioning of transport industry and tourism industry, which is unacceptable in the case of seeking to modernize the economy of the country and effective development of non-manufacturing and service sectors. To confirm the hypothesis there was the analysis of the current research devoted to the interaction between transport sector and the tourism industry. There was used the statistical analysis of the Russian passenger and cargo traffic by mode of transport for the period 1970–2014. In the end, there were made offers to improve the interaction between the transport sector and the tourist industry, the main of which are the following. The main efforts at low level of development of transport and tourist sectors should be aimed at the development of transport complex of the country. For the effective development of a transport complex it is necessary to organize close cooperation within transport and tour- ism areas, development of interaction between public and private control structures. The development of the transport complex through the formation of demand from tourism organizations for transportation services is inefficient, as a major role in the income formation of transport plays a factor in the passenger traffic, which depends primarily on the level of income.

Keywords:
transport sector, road transport, tourism, tourist destination, socio-economic development
Text

 Опираясь на исследования ведущих зарубежных и отечественных ученых в области функционирования транспортного комплекса, определим, что транспорт имеет огромное экономическое и организационное значение как органическое звено любого производства, материальная база для разделения труда, специализации и кооперирования предприятий, обмена и торговли. Транспортные расходы во многом определяют себестоимость и уровень цен товаров и услуг. Без транспорта немыслимо освоение новых районов и природных богатств. Транспорт – это, образно говоря, кровеносная система государства [1, с. 158; 2, с. 165; 3, с. 90; 4, с. 43]. Транспорт – важный фактор в создании материально-технической базы, необходимое условие формирования новых территориально-производственных комплексов, особенно в Сибири, Средней Азии, на Севере, Дальнем Востоке [5, с. 59; 6, с. 210; 7, с. 725]; материальная основа для экономической интеграции регионов страны. Транспорт – гигантская сфера приложения человеческого труда. Транспорт был и остается мощным средством для решения социально- экономических проблем и прежде всего для выравнивания уровня жизни населения [8, с. 30; 9]. Но переход экономики на «рыночные рельсы», отсутствие значительных инвестиций в развитие транспортного комплекса (в размере, сопоставимом с затратами на функционирование всего комплекса), «ограниченные»  контроль и влияние на деятельность комплекса со стороны государственных ведомств способствовали стагнации и рецессии транспортной системы России.  Снижение  потребности   экономики  и социальной сферы в транспортных услугах было вызвано экономическими трансформациями в стране, повышением тарифов на перевозки, снижением платежеспособности населения, введением таможенных сборов и визового режима с некоторыми из соседних государств. Единая система транспортного комплекса была разрушена. Каждый вид транспорта (автомобильный, железнодорожный, авиатранспорт, речной, морской) был вынужденно вовлечен в процесс реорганизаций и преобразований [10, с. 70; 11, с. 25]. 

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